Samba 4: A Case Study (Part 1)

I work in the IT department for the Computer Science Department at Taylor University. We do things a little differently here in terms of our lab machine setup. We dual boot Ubuntu Linux and Windows 7, but we centralize our file serving and domain controlling through Samba on Linux–as opposed to a Windows Active Directory Solution. Currently, we use Samba 3.5.x as our Primary Domain Controller with an OpenLDAP backend to host user accounts. This has been working, but it has issues. Samba 3 was designed for the NT style domain, which is really starting to show its age when compared to modern Active Directory. For instance, to edit a group policy setting, we currently have to manually edit our Windows OS image and push it out to every machine (alternatively, we have an updater script that allows us to do it without re-imaging, but it’s still a pain).

I started following Samba 4 development late last year, which just had its first official release a couple months ago, and I’m now in the process of building a production active directory cluster to replace the Samba 3 server. The official HOWTO is a little skimpy (listed here:, so I thought  I would add some of my experience setting this stuff up. As a disclaimer, I’m no expert, so this just my understanding based on messing around with it. If you notice something that’s not correct, please leave a comment or email me.

System Architecture

Before I go into details, I wanted to give a bit of an overview of the server architecture I went with. Although the Samba team would love for you to use Samba 4 exclusively, my personal experience tells me that it really should have a Windows DC attached to it (two would be better). I guess it depends on your specific needs, but one big reason we’re opting for Samba is the unification of file space and permissions between Linux and Windows.

One key thing to know about Active Directory is that it’s deeply tied into DNS. You can’t query for anything in the domain without a working DNS configuration. For a Linux-only solution, there are two options: use a heavily modified Bind configuration integrated with Samba (which has issues), or just choose the new default internal DNS server built by the Samba team.

Messing with Bind isn’t my cup of tea, and if you’re looking for help there, I’m not your guy. I’m not really excited about using the custom DNS solution either, for a couple reasons. For one, it’s brand new, so it’s a security risk, and it lacks the stability of industry standard DNS solutions. It seems like the Samba team just got fed up hacking Bind to match their needs, so they just wrote their own. That’s all well and good, but I’d rather use the Windows DNS solution. It’s turnkey, stable, and still allows for Linux integration I need.

I fiddles around with a couple different server configurations. I first tried using S4 as the initial DC. I built a Windows Server 2008 R2 machine (sidenote: don’t bother with Windows Server 2012, it’s not supported yet), and tried joining it to the Samba domain. I kept running into strange errors in dcpromo.exe, so that didn’t work.

In my second attempt, I built a Windows server box and joined the S4 server to it, using the instructions listed here:

This worked pretty well. I was able to join successfully and get replication working; I really like having the Windows GUI for DNS and Group Policy settings accessible from Windows. Because I don’t quite trust S4 yet, I added  a second Windows DC to the cluster. I’ve noticed that the S4 server screws up some features. For instance, I can’t demote any of the domain controllers (I get weird errors), so I have to manually remove the connections and DNS entries. This isn’t the end of the world for us because we have a small cluster. For larger clusters this would be a big show stopper. I’ve seen some chatter about this on the samba news list, but no solutions.  There are other minor issues I’ve run into, but I won’t list them here. I’ll probably make a separate post for that.

Those hiccups aside, I’m able to replicate the directory entries between all domain controllers. I can also create accounts on either the S4 or Windows machines successfully. I created a couple fresh Windows 7 builds and configured some group policy settings for them (including folder redirection and roaming profiles). It didn’t take too long to get that working.

There’s a lot of details I’ve come across in setting this up, so I’m going to try and spread it out over a few posts. Stay tuned for updates! If you have any questions about things, feel free to comment or email me.


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